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  Israel Faxx                                      \/ /  \/ /
  Sept 1, 1994 Volume 2, #164                      / /\__/_/\
  Electronic World Communications, Inc.           /__\ \_____\
  8916 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45215             \  /
  Internet: Phone: (513) 563-7424   \/

Peres and Mussa Discuss Ways to Improve Ties, Propose Free Trade Zone

In a meeting between Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Mussa and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, the two discussed ways to improve relations between Egypt and Israel. Both men agreed to work together to strengthen economic, cultural and religious ties between the two countries. Peres and Mussa also discussed the idea of establishing a free trade zone between Eilat, Aqaba and Taba, and a joint "University of Peace" on the Israeli-Egyptian border with a curriculum focusing on the environment, water and desert agriculture.

During the meeting, Mussa demanded that Israel sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. In response, Peres said that only after a comprehensive peace settlement is achieved, which includes Iraq and Iran, can the Middle East become a nuclear free zone. Peres added that Israel believes this subject should be discussed within the framework of the multilateral talks on arms control and regional security.

Assad Establishes Team to Coordinate Syrian Involvement in Peace Talks

Syrian President Hafez al-Assad has established a peace team to coordinate Syria's activities in the peace talks. The team reportedly consists of senior Syrian political and military officials, including Foreign Minister Farouq al-Shara, Muafaq Allaf - head of the delegation to the talks with Israel, and Walid Mualem - the Syrian Ambassador to the United States.

Israel Radio reports that Israeli and American sources estimate that Syria will not send a senior representative to the Middle East economic conference in Morocco in October, unless there is progress in the Israeli-Syrian talks. This assessment reportedly came from a meeting this week in Washington between U.S. officials involved in the peace talks and an Israeli delegation headed by Foreign Ministry Director General Uri Savir. The report adds that U.S. Secretary of State Warren Christopher will raise the issue in his upcoming visit to the Middle East.

Peres: Pakistani Prime Minister May Visit Gaza Strip

Foreign Minister Shimon Peres told PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat that Israel will allow Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to visit the Gaza Strip. Peres explained that the decision was made after Israel considered a formal request from the Palestinians. The Foreign Minister said that if a proper request had been submitted initially, the misunderstanding could have been avoided.

French President Francois Mitterand will visit the Palestinian self-rule areas this winter. According to sources in France, Mitterand will also visit Jerusalem and Amman.

Savir Meets with U.S. and World Bank Officials Over Financing for Palestinians

An Israeli delegation, led by Director General of the Foreign Ministry Uri Savir, has met with U.S. and World Bank officials in Washington. The delegation reportedly requested that approximately $30-40 million in financial aid be transferred to the Palestinians as soon as possible to help facilitate early empowerment - the transfer of certain civil responsibilities to the Palestinians in the West Bank. Speaking to reporters, Savir explained that the success of the Palestinian Authority is of great importance, adding that financial assistance is necessary until the Palestinians can establish a tax collection system.

Government Predicts 8-10% Inflation for 1995

The government has set an 8-10% target for inflation in 1995. This was announced by Finance Minister Avraham Shochat and Bank of Israel Governor Jacob Frenkel in a meeting with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The three met to discuss the government's strategy for lowering inflation.

Prices on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange rose slightly in trading Wednesday. Ma'ariv attributes the strength of the TASE to recent reports about rising profits among companies traded on the exchange.

A Brief History of the Israeli Press

The first Hebrew newspapers in Israel, then part of the Ottoman Empire, were the Halevanon and Havatzelet weeklies. Both appeared in Jerusalem in 1863, but were shut down by the Turkish authorities within one year. 'Halevanon' moved to Europe; 'Havatzelet,' under the editorship of I. Bak and later his son-in-law, I.D. Frumkin, was reopened in 1870 and ran until 1911. From 1881 until 1884, one of the paper's contributors was Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, the "father" of modern Hebrew.

In 1884, Ben-Yehuda founded his own paper, 'Hazevi,' initially a weekly, which he used as one of his vehicles in the development of modern Hebrew. In 1908, Ben-Yehuda, helped by his son Itamar Ben-Avi, began publishing 'Hazevi' (later renamed 'Haor') as a daily. In 1907, European immigrants affiliated with the Hapoel Hatzair movement, who objected to Ben-Yehuda's style and political opinions, founded their paper of the same name. Two years later, the Ahdut movement also founded its own paper of the same name. Two more papers appeared before World War I, the Sephardi-oriented 'Haherut' in 1909 and the orthodox 'Moriyah' in 1910, which inherited most readers of the soon-to-be defunct 'Havetzelet'.

During the war, the Turkish authorities closed all of the then existing newspapers. After the war, under the British Mandate, a new crop of papers opened up. 'Ha'aretz' was the first of these opening in 1919. Ben-Yehuda and his son worked for the new paper for a short while but soon grew disgruntled.

In 1919, Ben-Avi began publishing 'Doar Hayom'. Both papers were initially published in Jerusalem, but 'Ha'aretz' moved to Tel Aviv.

Except for 'Ha'aretz,' nearly all the inter-war papers had some political and/or organizational affiliation, and thus reflected a particular line. In 1925, the Histadrut labor federation established 'Davar,' which reflected the ideology of the labor movement. Political differences with the Histadrut leadership of the time led Hashomer Hatzair to begin publishing 'Mishmar' in 1943. When Hashomer Hatzair merged with another faction in 1948, the Mapam party began publishing the renamed 'Al-Hamishmar.'

The Revisionist movement first took over 'Doar Hayom' in 1928, and then briefly published two other papers, 'Hayarden' (1934-36) and 'Hamashkif' (1938-48). With the advent of independence in 1948, the Revisionist political party, Herut, founded a paper of the same name. When Herut formed the Gahal alliance (predecessor of today's Likud Party) with the Liberal Party in 1966, its paper was merged with the Liberal 'Haboker' to form the new 'Hayom' which ran for four years before ceasing publication. The religious Zionist movement founded 'Hatzofeh' in 1938.

The major exception to the inter-war trend of affiliated newspapers was the English-language 'Palestine Post,' founded in 1932 by Gershon Agron. In 1950, Agron renamed the paper, 'The Jerusalem Post.'

Until 1929, all papers, except for 'Doar Hayom' were published at noon. In that year, however, they began to appear in the morning. Ten years later, in 1939, a new politically unaffiliated afternoon paper appeared, 'Yediot Ahronot,' Israel's first tabloid. In 1948, a group of journalists left 'Yediot Ahronot' and founded the rival 'Hatzofeh,' also politically unaffiliated. Eventually, 'Yediot Ahronot' began coming out in the morning as well. Today, all of Israel's newspapers publish in the morning. The last major daily paper, 'Hadashot' began publication in 1984, but ceased publication in 1993.

In addition to the current newspapers mentioned, there are many others, dailies and weeklies. Israel has two Hebrew-language business dailies, 'Globes' and 'Telegraph.' While 'Hatzofeh' generally reflects the views of Israel's religious (Orthodox) Zionist movement, the ultra-Orthodox community has three dailies of its own: 'Hamodiya,' affiliated with the Agudat Yisrael Party; 'Yated Ne'eman', affiliated with the Degel Hatorah Party; and 'Yom L'yom' affiliated with the Shas Party. There are several Russian-language dailies. There are also papers (mostly weeklies) published in Arabic, French, Spanish, Romanian, Bulgarian, Hungarian, German, Polish, Yiddish, and Georgian. Lastly, there are a number of weekly newspapers, mainly in Hebrew, that deal with strictly local issues and news in many of Israel's cities and regions. Some of these are published by the national daily newspapers; others are independent. Nearly all appear on Friday.

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